Distance learning

Ural State University of Railway Transport
USURT

Личный кабинет студента
и преподавателя
ЭЛЕКТРОННЫЙ ПРИЕМ
ДОКУМЕНТОВ ОТ ПОСТУПАЮЩИХ

Prevention of coronavirus

Dear Students!

Remember: the most effective way to avoid getting ill is prevention and self – isolation. Avoiding unnecessary trips and visiting crowded places can reduce the risk of disease. Avoid visiting shopping and entertainment centers, cinemas, bars and other enclosed areas where the distance between people is less than 1.5 m.Please note that public transport significantly increases the risk of Contracting coronavirus infection, especially during rush hour.

The virus can spread through door handles, Elevator buttons, keyboards, touchscreens of ATMs, coffee machines – through any hard surfaces that remain for up to 9 days. In the Elevator, you can get infected without even touching the buttons and walls – because of the small volume of air and poor ventilation. The source of increased danger is plastic cards and cash, and the most dangerous item in every home is a cell phone. When you return from the street, do not forget to treat it with a disinfectant solution. Always wash the packaging of all purchases from grocery stores with soap before placing them in the refrigerator or eating them, as well as vegetables and fruits.

Hand hygiene is an important measure to prevent the spread of coronavirus infection. Wash with soap and water removes the virus. If it is not possible to wash hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based disinfectant wipes.

It has been found that the most favorable temperature for the spread of the virus is plus 9 °C. The Virus is spread by by airborne transmission when sneezing, coughing or talking, with dust particles in the wind and through all solid surfaces. If the temperature drops below 0 °C, the virus can persist for a long time.

Children who often carry the disease asymptomatically can become the main carriers of infection. Pets can be carriers of viruses on the coat and in the gastrointestinal tract.

Beware, take care of yourself and your loved ones, and follow preventive measures.

On this page, we publish current recommendations for the population in connection with the spread of coronavirus infection (COVID-19).

Follow the information about coronavirus in Russia in real time on the official website стопкоронавирус.рф.

What are coronaviruses?

Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that primarily affect animals, but in some cases can be transmitted to humans. Usually, diseases caused by coronaviruses occur in a mild form, without causing severe symptoms.

How is it passed?

  • Airborne (when coughing, sneezing, talking);
  • Air-to-dust (with dust particles in the air);
  • Contact-household way (through handshakes, household items).

Transfer factors:

  • air (main);
  • food and household items contaminated with the virus.

​Like other respiratory viruses, coronavirus is spread through droplets that are formed when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
It can also spread when an infected person touches any contaminated surface, such as a door handle . People become infected when they touch their mouth, nose, or eyes with contaminated hands.

The symptoms of coronavirus

In the vast majority of cases, these symptoms are not associated with the coronavirus, but with ordinary ARVI.

Key symptoms:

  • High body temperature;
  • cough (dry or with a small amount of sputum);
  • dyspnea;
  • tight feeling in the chest.

Rare symptoms:

  • Headache;
  • hemoptysis;
  • diarrhea;
  • nausea, vomiting.

Symptoms may occur within 14 days after contact with an infectious patient. Symptoms are similar to many respiratory diseases, often mimic a common cold, and may resemble the flu.

Do you have similar symptoms?

If you have similar symptoms, consider the following:

  • Have you visited high-risk areas (countries where many cases of coronavirus infection have been reported) in the past two weeks?
  • Have you been in contact with someone who has visited high-risk areas (countries where there are many cases of coronavirus infection) in the past two weeks?

If the answer to this question is positive, the symptoms should be treated as carefully as possible: you need to immediately contact a doctor to confirm the diagnosis and get the necessary medical care. It is better to refrain from visiting a medical facility and call a doctor at home at the phone number listed on your clinic's website or at 112 or 103. Do not self-medicate in any case is not worth it.

7 steps to prevent coronavirus infection

  • Keep away from visiting public places: shopping centers, sports and entertainment events, and transport during rush hour.
  • Use a disposable medical mask (respirator) in public places, changing it every 2-3 hours.
  • Avoid close contact and staying in the same room with people who have visible signs of ARVI (coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge).
  • Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water after returning from the street, contact with strangers.
  • Disinfect gadgets, office equipment, and surfaces you touch.
  • If possible, limit close hugs and handshakes when greeting.
  • Use only personal hygiene items (towels, toothbrushes).

Frequently asked question

  How is the disease diagnosed?

Collection and evaluation of complaints, past medical history, epidemiological anamnesis, medical examination.

Further – by doctor 's prescription:

  • Laboratory specific diagnostics (detection of RNA SARS-CoV-2 by PCR method);
  • General laboratory diagnostics (clinical blood analysis, biochemical blood analysis, etc.);
  • Instrumental examination.

The materials for medical examination are:

  • main - nasal smear and / or oropharynx smear;
  • additional — epithelial lining fluid, (endo)tracheal/ nasopharyngeal aspirate, stethocatharsis, lung biopsy or autopsy material, whole blood, blood serum, micturate, fecal matter.

  Where can I get tested for coronavirus?

Independent tests for coronavirus are not provided. The COVID–19 test is prescribed by medical professionals in the following cases:

  • arrivals from epidemiologically disadvantaged COVID-19 countries and regions 14 days before symptoms appear;
  • close contacts over the past 14 days with persons under medical supervision of COVID–19 who subsequently became ill;
  • close contacts over the past 14 days with individuals who have been laboratory-confirmed of COVID–19.

Sample acquisition for analysis is performed by a medical professional. The study of samples is carried out In the center of hygiene and epidemiology in the Russian Federation.

Private medical organizations do not provide  medical examination for COVID-19.

  Is it possible to cure the new coronavirus?

Yes, sure. There is no specific anti-viral medication for the new coronavirus yet – just as there is no specific treatment for most other respiratory viruses that cause colds.

Viral pneumonia, the main and most dangerous complication of a coronavirus infection, cannot be treated with antibiotics. In the case of pneumonia, treatment is aimed at maintaining lung function.

Russia is developing vaccines against a new virus:

Currently, the Federal state scientific center "Vector", located in the Novosibirsk region, is developing vaccines against a new coronavirus infection in five directions and 13 variants.

  Who is at risk?

People of all ages can get infected with the virus. However, as with most other viral respiratory diseases, people over the age of 65, people with weakened immune systems, and people with chronic diseases are at risk of severe disease.

  What is the difference between a coronavirus and a flu virus?

A coronavirus and a flu virus may have similar symptoms, but they are completely different genetically.

Flu viruses multiply very quickly – symptoms appear two to three days after infection, and the coronavirus takes up to 14 days.

  What are the features of quarantine?

All citizens who have arrived in the Russian Federation from countries with poor epidemiologic situation must be isolated at their place of stay for a period of 14 days.

All arrivals are subject to medical supervision. The number of doctor's visits is determined individually in each case during the entire quarantine period. If symptoms of SARS appear, a person should immediately seek medical help without visiting medical organizations.

Medical care for all patients and persons with suspected COVID-19 is provided free of charge. Current legislation does not provide for compensation for the difference between the payment of sick leave and the actual salary, if the person was in quarantine.

  Can relatives of a person with coronavirus visit him in the hospital?

No. During the isolation period, visiting the patient is prohibited in order to prevent the spread of infection. Patients who are in hospital can use a mobile phone and other means of communication to communicate with relatives.

Relatives can transfer food and personal items to patients , but there are a number of restrictions that need to be clarified with the hospital 's enquiry service.

  Can I get coronavirus via my mobile phone?

A particularly important role can be played by the mobile phone as a carrier of influenza pathogens, other viral respiratory infections and, in particular, coronavirus infection COVID-19.

  How to avoid infection?

First: strictly observe hand hygiene – after visiting public places and toilets, always wash your hands thoroughly for 20 seconds, then dry them with a disposable paper towel. It is highly advisable to carry antiseptic wipes or liquid products (gels, sprays , etc. ). This way you can always keep your hands clean even if you can't wash them.

Second: regularly treat the phone itself with antiseptic agents , especially where the case of the gadget comes into contact with the face. If there is a cover-then it must be removed and processed separately during processing (and it is better to do without it at all).

To fight influenza and SARS viruses (and coronaviruses), it is best to use napkins and alcohol -based gels. The popular antiseptic chlorhexidine is more designed to protect against bacteria, but in extreme cases , you can use it.

Any employee can refuse a business trip if the stichtings for such refusal are provided for in the Labor code or employment contract.

The following groups of employees may not be sent on business trips:

  • pregnant women;
  • underage employees, with the exception of athletes and creative workers;
  • employees who have signed an apprenticeship agreement - if the business trip is not related to the apprenticeship;
  • disabled persons -if such restriction is specified in the individual rehabilitation program;
  • employees registered as candidates for an elected body during the election period.

Cannot be sent on a business trip without sanction:

  • women with children under three years old;
  • single parents and guardians raising children under the age of five;
  • employees with disabled children;
  • employees who care for a sick family member in accordance with a medical report.

  How can I complain about the lack of masks in pharmacies?

If you have questions about the lack of medical masks and antiviral drugs in pharmacies, call the free hotline of Roszdravnadzor 8 (800) 550-99-03.

Myths and misconceptions

Are antibiotics an effective means of preventing and treating a new coronavirus infection?

No, antibiotics do not work against viruses. They only allow you to treat bacterial infections. A new coronavirus is a virus, and therefore antibiotics should not be used to prevent and treat a coronavirus infection. However, patients hospitalized with an infection may be prescribed antibiotics to treat concomitant bacterial infections.

Can regular nasal rinsing with saline solution protect against coronavirus infection?

No. There is no scientific evidence that regular rinsing of the nose with saline solution can protect against a new coronavirus infection. According to some reports , regular rinsing of the nose with saline solution can speed up recovery for a common cold. However, there is no evidence of the effectiveness of regular nasal flushing as a means of preventing respiratory infections.

Is it true that only the elderly can become infected with the new coronavirus , or are young people also susceptible to this infection?

All age groups can become infected with the new coronavirus (COVID-19). Older people and people with certain diseases ( for example, asthma, diabetes, heart disease) appear to be at an increased risk of developing severe forms of coronavirus infection. Who recommends that people of all ages take measures to protect themselves from infection, such as hand hygiene and cough hygiene.

Is it possible to be infected with the coronavirus from domestic animals?

Today, there are seven known types of coronaviruses that cause acute respiratory diseases of humans . Among these viruses is the new COVID-19. According to modern data, the source of coronavirus infection caused by these types of viruses, animals – cats, dogs, hamsters and others – can not be. According to current data from the world health organization , no cases of infection of cats and dogs with the new coronavirus have been recorded, as well as the facts of the spread of COVID-19 by pets.